Biomarkers of dairy fat consumption and risk of type 2 diabetes
Fat-reduced dairy products are usually recommended over whole-fat dairy products, because they contain less calories and saturated fat. However, clinical trials do not consistently show an improvement of cardiometabolic risk factors when comparing low fat dairy consumption to whole-fat or overall dairy consumption. Similarly, the possible effects of dairy fat consumption on the risk of type 2 diabetes are not well established.
Dietary patterns in relation to fracture risk and low bone mineral density
Osteoporosis is characterized by a low bone mineral density and compromised bone strength. Many factors contribute to low bone mineral density and osteoporosis such as gender, physical inactivity, excessive alcohol consumption, loss of estrogen and nutritional factors mainly related to adequate intakes of calcium and vitamin D.
Choosing nutrient-rich over nutrient-poor foods for better diet quality
The general principle of nutrient density is the concentration of nutrients per amount of food or caloric contribution of that food. The 2015-2020 Dietary Guidelines for Americans (DGA) defined nutrient-dense foods as those that “provide vitamins, minerals, and other substances that contribute to adequate nutrient intakes or may have positive health effects, with little or no solid fats and added sugars, refined starches, and sodium.”
Attention required for strong bones with a vegan diet
What is the effect of a vegan diet on bone mineral density? Researchers Iguacel et al., (2018) have investigated the effect of different diets on bone health in a systematic review and meta-analysis.
The history of dairy
Crop farmers and cattle farmers first began to keep cows about 10,000 years ago. They discovered that cows can convert grass, which is indigestible for humans, into the valuable food product milk. This was the perfect solution for people in areas where no other crops could grow.
Vitamin D and combined supplementation with calcium
Globally, the incidence and prevalence of vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency is on the rise (1). Approximately more than half of the world’s population have vitamin D insufficiency or deficiency (1). Fortunately, this disorder can be easily modified with minimal cost. Recently, Wimalawansa et al (2018) published a review on the function of vitamin D and its supplementation in various populations.
Can people with lactose intolerance consume dairy products?
Many Europeans and some populations in Africa, the Middle East and Southeast Asia can digest lactose throughout life thanks to the presence of the enzyme lactase in the small intestine. This is called lactase persistence. Most people who cannot tolerate lactose can digest about 12 grams of lactose per day. This is equal to a large glass (250 ml) of milk. Yoghurt contains less lactose and semi-hard cheeses hardly contain any lactose.
Nutritional differences between milk and plant-based drinks
Milk has been consumed for around 10,000 years. Milk and milk products are part of the everyday diet of many. Milk naturally contains essential nutrients like protein, calcium, potassium, phosphor, iodine and vitamins B2 and B12. In recent years, there has been increasing interest in beverages based on soy, hemp, coconut, oat, rice and nuts.
Milk and bone health
Genetics are a major determinant for strong bones and account for 60 to 80% of the variation in peak bone mass, i.e. the maximum bone density. Nutrition and exercise also play important roles in the development of the bones while growing (children) and in the bone tissue maintenance phase for adults and elderly people. Health authorities agree that calcium, protein and phosphorus from, among others, milk support the development and maintenance of the bones mass.
Which factors are involved in building muscle after strength training?
Muscle mass in adults is reasonably stable with muscle tissue constantly being built up and broken down. Normally this breakdown and build-up are balanced, therefore the muscle mass remains stable. One of the purposes of this continual breakdown and build-up of muscle tissue is to replace damaged muscle proteins or to adapt the composition of the muscle tissue to training.