Growth and nutritional needs of preterm infants
The survival rate for children born prematurely has increased substantially during the last two decades due to improved care and nutrition. Nowadays it is widely recognized that preterm infants have special nutritional needs. The major nutritional goal for these infants is to achieve growth similar to fetal growth, together with adequate functional development.
Feeding preterm infants after hospital discharge
The survival of small premature infants has markedly improved during the last few decades. Preterm infants are generally discharged from hospital care earlier than before, with body weights far below typical birth weights of healthy term infants. Such infants may require special nutritional regimens or special post-discharge formulae instead of regular nutrition. However, this is a question that is still the subject of ongoing discussion and research.
DHA and AA for premature infants: science and recommendations
In nutrition for premature infants, much interest is currently focusing on the importance of long chain polyunsaturated fatty acids (LCPUFA) and more specifically docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) and arachidonic acid (AA).
Challenges in managing gastroesophageal reflux in infants and children
All infants experience gastroesophageal reflux (GER) with the prevalence typically peaking at 4-5 months of age and resolving without intervention by 13-14 months of age. If an otherwise healthy infant (3 weeks-12 months of age) experiences regurgitation, with no retching, haematemesis (blood in vomit), apnoea (temporary stopping of breathing), more than twice per day for over 3 weeks, they may be diagnosed with functional infant regurgitation.
New developments in the treatment of constipation in childhood
In 2014, the European and North American Societies for Paediatric Gastroenterology, Hepatology, and Nutrition (ESPGHAN and NASPGHAN) issued guidelines on the management of paediatric constipation using:
Nourishing the Infant and Child: Aiming for Effect Beyond Growth
Early nutrition in utero and in childhood have direct and indirect effects on an infant’s brain growth, development and immunity, which in turn impact the child’s long-term cognitive performance and physical health. These effects are influenced by specific nutrients and the timing at which they are delivered during early life.
Introduction to cow’s milk protein allergy
2-7% of babies and toddlers and 0.1-0.5% of adults are allergic to the protein in cow's milk. The duration of the allergy to the cow’s milk protein varies, but most children will have outgrown this allergy by the age of two to three years. Although it is often stated that the number of children with cow’s milk protein allergy is increasing, there is no scientific evidence to support this.
Nature vs Nurture – Who Wins?
Genetics (nature) and environment (nurture) both influence the development of an individual. In the Asian population, which makes up 60% of the world’s population, non-communicable diseases are prevalent. Obesity, for example, has become a major global health problem; for instance, the proportion of adults with a body mass index of 25 or greater has exceeded 40% among men in Singapore, and among both men and women in Malaysia (1).
Milk provides high quality protein essential for growth
Protein plays a role in building and maintaining body tissues, such as muscle and bone. Proteins are made of smaller building blocks called amino acids. There are 20 different types of amino acids, 9 of which are essential. Milk protein is considered high quality protein because it contains all 9 essential amino acids (EAAs) in relatively high quantities.
Growth standards and nutrition guidelines for infants and young children
When given an optimal start, children from all over the world have the potential to grow in similar patterns. There are always individual differences among children, but across large populations, regionally and globally, the average growth is remarkably similar. Differences in growth of children up to the age of five are more influenced by healthy nutrition, a healthy environment and good health care, than by genetics or ethnicity. Guidelines for healthy eating provide a good reference for hea